Plenary Session Presentations
Dr. Ty Olmstead
Dr. Ty Olmstead
About Dr. Ty Olmstead
Dr. Ty Olmstead has been the Director of Technology at Ocean Insight (formerly Ocean Optics Inc.) since 2016 bringing with him over 20 years as a technology leader developing optic and photonic systems and integrating them into architectures for custom applications. As a senior member of the leadership team at Ocean Insight, Dr. Olmstead drives R&D, product development, and custom solutions using by balancing the fine edge of innovation and structured engineering and quality principles. With several publications on the subjects of femtosecond lasers, multispectral image analysis, and ophthalmic/biomedical optical systems achieved over his career, Dr. Olmstead’s offerings to the world of academia are as broad as his experience in industry with his development of biomedical optics systems, spectroscopic systems, and in-depth experience from proof of concept, through clinical implementation, to end of life PLM. Dr. Olmstead’s entrepreneurial nature has also been demonstrated as a founding engineer and Technical Director at LENSAR, where his team performed advanced R&D, clinical prototyping, and development of commercial systems. Additionally, Dr. Olmstead won a Halma Accelerate Convergence Trailblazer Award for his efforts in building convergence programs between Ocean Insight and its sister companies under Ocean’s parent company, Halma.
Since before the first studies of Endre Mester with the Ruby laser where he showed accelerated wound healing, biophotonics has demonstrated transformational solutions in Medicine. This talk will present a review of several successes biophotonics has had in Medicine and new opportunities. Devices including Laser Scribing, OCT, Refractive Lasers, and Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery have transformed the standard of care in Medicine. As we look back and to the future, what is next for biophotonics in Medicine? Transformation of aphakic IOLs? COVID-19 detection? Drug fabrication? Regenerative Medicine? The potential of biophotonics continues to solve many challenging problems in Medicine. This talk will address these and other relevant topics to biophotonics.
Dr. Abdalla R Nassar
Dr. Abdalla R Nassar
About Dr. Abdalla R Nassar
Dr. Abdalla R. Nassar is an Associate Research Professor and a department head within the Materials Science Division of the Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) at Penn State. Dr. Nassar also has Graduate Faculty appointments with the Engineering Science and Mechanics Department, the Additive Manufacturing & Design Graduate Program, and the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Penn State. He has worked in the field laser processing of metals for over a decade and specifically focused on laser-based AM of metals over the past eight years. He has led and participated in numerous programs on powder bed fusion and directed energy additive manufacturing. In particular, he has developed software and algorithms related to direct integration of AM processes with computational models, implemented data acquisition and control systems on lab-scale and commercial additive manufacturing equipment, discovered defect-detection strategies, designed advanced thermal management systems utilizing PBFAM, and investigated novel strategies for microstructural control, part build-up, and post- processing methods for AM components. His work has led to over seven patent filings along with several dozen peer-reviewed publications.
Laser-based powder bed fusion (PBF) and directed energy deposition (DED) additive manufacturing have been embraced by much of the aerospace and defense industry for part production and repair. Unfortunately, there still remains considerable uncertainty regarding the causes and effects of many defects types observed in PBF and DED components. Numerous conditions can lead to the formation of defects (i.e. internal discontinuities or undesirable microstructure) that can negatively affect build and part quality. Some of these defects are easily attributable to systematic errors (e.g. poor processing parameters or contamination). However, many others appear stochastic in nature, appearing randomly even under ideal processing conditions. Here, we detail recent work seeking to elucidate the mechanisms by which systemic and stochastic defects form and approaches to detecting both types in- situ. We illustrate that naturally-occurring, stochastics flaws can be emulated via perturbation of processing conditions and can be sensed via illuminated melt pool imaging and observation of the vapor plume produced above the melt. Similar approaches can also be utilized to detect systematic variations in processing parameters. It is also possible to predict and use feed forward control to avoid many defect types. The presented analyses and methodologies present a path forward for mitigation and detection of both systematic and stochastic defects.
Prof. Kenichi L. Ishikawa
Prof. Kenichi L. Ishikawa
About Prof. Kenichi L. Ishikawa
Prof. Kenichi L. Ishikawa received the B.Eng. and M.Eng degrees in nuclear engineering from The University of Tokyo (Japan) in 1992 and 1995, respectively, and the Ph.D. (Dr. rer. nat.) degree in physics from RWTH Aachen University (Germany) in 1998. He is currently a Professor at Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, as well as Research Institute for Photon Science and Laser Technology, The University of Tokyo. He is concurrently Guest Professor at Osaka University since 2019. He was a Postdoctoral Researcher at CEA- Saclay from 1998 to 2000, a Special Postdoctoral Researcher at RIKEN from 2000 to 2002, an Associate Professor at The University of Tokyo from 2002 to 2008, a Senior Researcher at RIKEN from 2008 to 2009, and a Project Associate Professor at The University of Tokyo from 2009 to 2014.
He is internationally renowned for his contributions to numerical calculation and theoretical modeling of laser-matter interaction, ranging from strong-field physics, ultrafast laser science, attosecond science to laser processing. He is currently participating several national projects of Japan to promote smart laser manufacturing and, in particular, leading a nation-wide network project for proposing the optimal processing parameters using artificial intelligence and simulation in cyberspace. He is currently a member of The Engineering Academy of Japan (EAJ), The Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP), The Physical Society of Japan (JPS), The Laser Society of Japan (LSJ), Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ), OSA, APS, and SPIE among others.
For a brighter future of the global society, Japan is committed to achieving sustainable growth and becoming a pioneer in the establishment of a new social model Society 5.0. Society 5.0 is defined as a human-centered society that balances economic advancement with the resolution of social problems by a system that highly integrates cyberspace and physical space, i.e., cyber-physical system (CPS). To promote smart production and eventually realize Society 5.0 and sustainable development goals, we develop CPS laser manufacturing capable of proposing the optimal processing parameters using artificial intelligence and numerical calculations based on the science and theory of laser processing combined with massive data of high quality.
Understanding laser processing belong to multiscale and multidisciplinary cutting-edge science. For example, how atoms, molecules, and materials behave under intense laser irradiation is at the forefront of atomic, molecular, optical, and condensed-matter physics, involving highly nonlinear, dynamical processes. One of our focuses is to understand and simulate such strong laser matter interaction by combining different techniques, even starting from the first principles of quantum mechanics.
We are developing various new methods to accurately calculate the laser-driven electron dynamics and energy transfer from laser to electrons. Also, combining first-principles and molecular dynamics calculations, we start to quantitatively reproduce how atoms are ejected from a laser-irradiated surface. In the macroscopic scale, for instance, we study multiphysics modeling of complex thermal multiphase flows with phase change. We build a nation-wide collaboration network of theoreticians as well as experimentalists that develop, e.g., cutting-edge operando measurement techniques such as high-speed photography and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.
Dr. Jyoti Mazumder
Dr. Jyoti Mazumder
About Dr. Jyoti Mazumder
Jyoti Mazumder is Robert H. Lurie Professor of Engineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Director of Center for Laser Aided Intelligent Manufacturing at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. He is an elected member of National Academy of Engineering. He has published more than 400 papers, co-authored books on Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition and Laser Materials Processing, edited/co-edited 10 books on topics related to laser materials processing and Mechanical Engineering, holds 24 U.S patents and has 8 patents pending. Dr. Mazumder has received numerous awards including, Bruce Chalmers Award, M Eugene Merchant Manufacturing Medal, Distinguished University Innovator Award, William T Ennor Award, and the Arthur L. Schawlow Award. He is also Fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), American Society of Metals (ASM), Fellow of International Academy of Photonics and Laser Engineering and Laser institute of America (LIA).
Economist Magazine hailed Additive manufacturing (AM) as “Third Industrial Revolution”. AM also features prominently in Factory 4.0. It has been practiced in one form or other for more than 5000 years. A pyramid in Egypt was built at 2800 BC using layer-by-layer construction. Modern versions for this technology are around for almost three decades. The first patent on steriolithography was issued in 1986 to Charles Hull. In many ways it is “back to the future”
Presently, there are several 3-D printing machine manufacturers using wide range of raw materials from wax to metals using various techniques. They are also making products from food to fashion. Even AM machine capable of remote manufacturing is now possible.
However one of the critical needs is “Certify as you build”. Due to relatively low volume production, conventional statistical quality control is difficult. In-situ diagnostics and quality assurance is needed and that is relatively unexplored field. In-situ optical diagnostics and its capability to integrate with the process control is a prudent alternative. New optical Sensors are being developed to control product health and geometry using imaging, cooling rate by monitoring temperature, microstructure and composition using optical spectra. Ultimately these sensors will enable one to “Certify as you Build”. Recently the author and his group have developed a technique to analyze the plasma spectra to predict the solid-state phase transformation, which opens up the new horizon for the materials processing and manufacturing.
Mathematical model developed for the process includes most of the physics but need substantial computing time. An effort needs to be made to develop surrogate models, which can converge within 10ms to enable the process control. Flexibility of the process is enormous and essentially it is an enabling technology to materialize many a design. Conceptually one can seat in Santa Fe and fabricate in Sheffield. This paper provides an overview of the past history, present status and future needs and potential.
Dr. Nina Lanza
Dr. Nina Lanza
About Dr. Nina Lanza
Dr. Nina Lanza is the Team Lead for Space and Planetary Exploration in Space and Remote Sensing (ISR- 2) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. She is on the science teams for the ChemCam instrument onboard the NASA Curiosity rover and the SuperCam instrument onboard the Perseverance rover. Her current research focuses on understanding the origin and nature of manganese minerals on Mars and how they may serve as potential biosignatures. In addition to her research on Mars, Dr. Lanza spent the 2015- 2016 austral summer in Antarctica recovering meteorites with the Antarctic Search for Meteorites project. She is also a regular contributor on the television series How the Universe Works (The Science Channel).
She is thrilled to be living her childhood dream of working on a spaceship.
The NASA Curiosity rover has been exploring the surface of Mars for the past eight years, carrying with it the ChemCam instrument as part of its scientific payload. ChemCam is a suite of instruments that includes a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument, which provides chemistry information about geologic materials at standoff distances of up to 7 m from the rover. The ChemCam LIBS instrument has produced over 800,000 individual spectra, an unprecedented number of observations from a single instrument on Mars. With these and other instrument data, we have learned that Curiosity’s landing site in Gale crater once hosted a long-lived freshwater lake that was habitable. As Curiosity continues to produce ever more data, a new NASA Mars rover was recently launched, with a landing date of February 18, 2021. Called Perseverance, this new rover has an all-new science instrument payload, including the SuperCam instrument suite. SuperCam uses a combined LIBS-Raman laser instrument to analyze geologic materials, which allows for direct measurement of both chemistry and mineralogy, thereby uniquely identifying geologic materials. SuperCam also includes a microphone that can record the sound of LIBS acoustic signals, which provides additional information about the material properties of martian rocks. In this talk, I will describe our two instruments, give an overview of current results from ChemCam and the Curiosity mission, and discuss the goals for the soon-to-land Perseverance mission.